چارچوبی برای کلیدی‌ترین شایستگی های یادگیری آینده

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه مطالعات مدیریت آموزش عالی، موسسه پژوهش و برنامه‌ریزی آموزش عالی، تهران، ایران.

10.52547/mpes.2022.224255.1098

چکیده

چکیده
هدف: آموزش و یادگیری شایستگی‌محور بر توانمندسازی دانش، ارزش‌، توانایی و نگرش‌های بایسته فراگیران برای پرداختن به مسائل و موضوع‌های پیچیده‌ای که در زندگی شخصی و حرفه‌ای آینده خود با آنها روبرو خواهند شد، پافشاری دارد. از این رو، هدف این پژوهش، پیشنهاد چارچوبی برای پرورش شایستگی‌ها و توانمندی‌های کلیدی مورد نیاز فراگیران در نظام‌های آموزشی بوده است.
مواد و روش‌ها: این پژوهش از دیدگاه هدف، پژوهشی کاربردی است؛ و از دیدگاه چگونگی گردآوری داده‌ها، در گروه «پژوهش کیفی» طبقه بندی می‌شود؛ به این صورت که با انجام مصاحبه‌های نیمه ساختاریافته با 26 نفر از اندیشه پرداران دانشگاهی، که به روش نمونه‌گیری هدفمند به روش زنجیره‌ای انتخاب شده بودند و نیز با استفاده از روش تحلیل محتوای کیفی، کلیدی‌ترین شایستگی‌ها و توانمندی‌های شناختی، رفتاری و اجتماعی فراگیران شناسایی شد و چارچوب مفهومی شایستگی‌های یادگیری آینده‌اندیشانه به تصویر کشیده شد. برای اعتباربخشی یافته‌های کیفی، از راهبردهای: بازبینی مشارکت کنندگان و بازبینی همکاران استفاده شده است.
بحث و نتیجه‌گیری: برپایه بازکاوی داده‌های مصاحبه‌های نیمه ساختاریافته، در مجموع شانزده زیرمقوله و دو مقوله اصلی بسان اصلی‌ترین شایستگی‌های شناختی، رفتاری و اجتماعی مورد نیاز فراگیران شناسایی شد. به بیانی دیگر، در مجموع شش زیرمقوله- حل مسئله، اندیشه‌ورزی نقادانه، آفرینشگری، خودشناسی، بازاندیشی انتقادی، خوداصلاحی- بسان شایستگی‌های شناختی و فراشناختی و ده زیرمقوله- کار گروهی، همدلی، کنجکاوی، مهارت‌های ارتباطی و بین فرهنگی، خودباوری، نرمش‌پذیری، مسئولیت‌پذیری فردی و اجتماعی، تصمیم‌گیری مشارکتی، انتقادپذیری، اخلاق‌مداری- بسان شایستگی‌های رفتاری و اجتماعی مورد نیاز فراگیران شناسایی شد.. بر پایه یافته‌های پژوهش، نیاز است نسل کنونی و آینده به شایستگی‌های کلیدی دست یابند تا بتوانند در جهان آشوبناک، شتابان و ناپایدار کنونی، به زندگی خویش سامان دهند. از این رو، سرمایه‌گذاری در سرمایه انسانی (آموزش)، برای توسعه شایستگی‌های کلیدی شناختی، رفتاری و اجتماعی، افزون بر شایستگی‌های پایه پیشنهاد می‌شود.
کلید واژه‌ها: شایستگی‌های یادگیری، شایستگی‌های شناختی-فراشناختی، شایستگی‌های رفتاری- اجتماعی، یادگیری/ آموزش آینده.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A framework for the key competencies of future learning

نویسندگان [English]

  • Motahhareh Hamzerobati
  • Hamid Javdani
Higher Education Management Studies Department,, Institute for Research and Planning in Higher Education, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Objective: Competence-based education focuses on the ability of students to develop important
knowledge, values, aptitudes, and attitudes necessary to address complex issues they will encounter in their future personal lives and professional careers. The purpose of this study was to provide a framework for developing key competencies required of learners in educational systems.
Materials and methods:This study was carried out with qualitative research method; In this way, by conducting semi-structured interviews with ۲۶ academic researchers, selected through purposive sampling (snowball or chain) and also using qualitative content analysis Technic , the key cognitive, behavioral and social competencies of learners were identified and the conceptual framework of futures-thinking competencies was depicted. To validate qualitative findings, participant review strategies and reviewers' strategies have been used.
Result and Discussion: Based on the analysis of semi-structured interview data in two stages of open and axial coding, a total of sixteen subcategories and two main categories were identified as the main cognitive, behavioral and social competencies of learners. In other words, six indicators- Problem solving, Critical thinking, Creativity, Self-knowledge, Critical rethinking, Self-correction- as cognitive and metacognitive competencies and ten indicators - Teamwork, empathy, curiosity, communication and intercultural competencies, self-confidence, flexibility, individual and social responsibility, participatory decision making, Criticism, ethics- were identified as the main behavioral and social competencies of learners. Based on the research findings, the present and future generations need to acquire key competencies in order to be able to organize their lives in the current turbulent and unstable world. Therefore, in addition to basic competencies, investing in human capital (education) is recommended to develop key cognitive, behavioral and social competencies.
Keywords: learning competencies; Cognitive competencies; Behavioral-social competencies; ; Future learning / education.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: learning competencies
  • Cognitive-metacognitive competencies
  • Behavioral-social competencies
  • Future learning / education
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