بررسی مولفه های مرتبط با اثربخشی یادگیری همراه در آموزش عالی

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه مدیریت و برنامه ریزی آموزشی، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 کارشناس ارشد مدیریت آموزشی، گروه مدیریت و برنامه ریزی آموزشی، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

10.52547/mpes.2022.221755.1013

چکیده

هدف: پژوهش حاضر باهدف بررسی ‌مؤلفه‌های ‌مرتبط با اثربخشیِ یادگیریِ ‌همراه در آموزش عالی انجام‌شده است.
مواد و روش‌ها: روش پژوهش ازنظر هدف، کاربردی و از منظر گردآوری داده‌ها آمیخته از نوع اکتشافی (کیفی-کمی) است. جامعه آماری پژوهش شامل؛ کلیه دانشجویان مشغول به تحصیل (1068 نفر) در موسسه آموزش عالی مهر البرز (سال تحصیلی 98-99) بوده است که با استفاده از روش نمونه‌گیری تصادفی ساده و فرمول کوکران 282 نفر به‌عنوان نمونه انتخاب شدند. به‌منظور تحقق اهداف پژوهش، ابتدا پیشینۀ تحقیقیِ موجود و مرتبط موردبررسی و بی‌آنکه نظریۀ خاصی مبنای کار قرار داده شود، بامطالعه و تلفیق الگوهای موجود درزمینۀ مؤلفه‌های مرتبط با اثربخشی یادگیریِ همراه از یک‌سو و انتخاب مؤلفه‌هایی که بیشترِ پژوهشگران به آن‌ها اشاره‌کرده‌اند از سوی دیگر، 15 مؤلفه شناسایی‌شده و بر اساس آن الگوی مفهومی پژوهش بازنمایی گردید. مؤلفه‌های مذکور عبارت‌اند از؛ نگرش دانشجویان به یادگیریِ همراه، قصد تداومِ یادگیری همراه، سواد فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات، پشتیبانی (مالی، فنی، آموزشی و دانشجویی)، انعطاف‌پذیری، تعامل در یادگیریِ همراه، کیفیت محتوی الکترونیکی، درکِ سودمندی یادگیری همراه، سهولت استفاده از یادگیری همراه، استقلال، خودکارآمدی و هنجارهای ذهنی یادگیرنده، وجود زیرساخت و دسترسی به نرم‌افزارها و سخت‌افزارهای موردنیاز برای یادگیری همراه. سپس مؤلفه‌های شناسایی‌شده بر اساس میزان ارتباط معنایی و محتوی در سه مؤلفه کلی‌تر شامل؛ مؤلفه‌های مرتبط با فرایند یاددهی- یادگیری[1]، ویژگی‌های فردی یادگیرنده و فناوری طبقه‌بندی شدند. در مرحلۀ بعد به‌منظور اعتبارسنجی الگوی مفهومی و بررسی وضعیت موجود در مؤسسه آموزش عالی مهر البرز پرسشنامه‌ای با 60 سؤال بسته پاسخ ساخته و اجرا شد. روایی پرسشنامه با نظر متخصصان، روایی سازه با استفاده از تحلیل عاملی و پایایی آن نیز با استفاده از آلفای‌ کرونباخ 0.97% محاسبه و به تأیید رسید.
یافته‌ها: نتایج حاصل از تحلیل داده‌ها نشان می‌دهد: 1. الگوی طراحی‌شده از برازش مطلوبی برخوردار است. 2. از دیدگاه دانشجویان وضعیت موجود کلیه مؤلفه‌های مرتبط با اثربخشیِ یادگیریِ ‌همراه از میانگین نظری (2.5) پایین‌تر می‌باشد. 3؛ و درنهایت دانشجویان اظهار می‌دارند که از بین مؤلفه‌های شناسایی‌شده، هنجارهای ذهنی یادگیرنده دارای بیشترین اهمیت در اثربخشیِ یادگیریِ ‌همراه و وجود زیرساخت مناسب از کمترین اهمیت برخوردار است.
نتیجه‌گیری: مجریان و سیاست‌گذاران موسسه آموزش عالی مهر البرز (الکترونیکی) قبل از پیاده‌سازی نظام یادگیریِ ‌همراه و به هنگام تدوین برنامه راهبردی و عملیاتی ضروری است به اهم مؤلفه‌های مؤثر برافزایش اثربخشی نظام مذکور نظیر؛ قصد تداومِ یادگیری همراه، سواد فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات، درکِ سودمندی یادگیری همراه، سهولت استفاده از یادگیریِ ‌همراه و تأمین زیرساخت مناسب جهت پیاده‌سازی آن توجه نمایند. در این راستا پیشنهاد می‌گردد به‌منظور بهبود مستمر کیفیت و افزایش اثربخشی یادگیریِ ‌همراه، سازوکارهای عملیاتی بر اساس اهم چالش‌های شناسایی‌شده طراحی، اجرا و مورد ارزیابی مستمر قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Examining the Components of E-learning Effectiveness in Higher Education

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Narenji thani 1
  • Zahra Shahmoradi 2
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Educational Administration and Planning, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 MA of Educational Administration, Department of Educational Administration and Planning, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Objective: This study aimed to study the related components of the effectiveness of m-learning in higher education.
Materials and Methods: The research method applied in terms of purpose and data collection is mixed (qualitative-quantitative). The study's statistical population includes; All students studying (1068 people) at Mehr Alborz Institute of Higher Education. Using a simple random sampling method and the Cochran formula, 282 people were selected as the sample. First, the existing and relevant literature review is examined to achieve the purpose. Then by studying and combining existing models in the field of related components to m-learning effectiveness on the one hand and selecting the components mentioned by most researchers, the component was identified, and based on it, the conceptual model of the research was represented. The mentioned components are; Students' attitude towards mobile learning, intention to continue mobile learning, ICT literacy, support system(financial, technical, educational, and student), flexibility, interaction in mobile learning, quality of electronic content, understanding of the usefulness of mobile learning, ease of using mobile learning, Independence, self-efficacy and mental norms of the learner, the existence of infrastructure and access to the software and hardware required for mobile learning. Then the identified components are based on the degree of semantic and content relationship in three more general components, including; Components related to the teaching-learning process, individual characteristics of the learner, and technology. In the next stage, to validate the conceptual model and review the current situation of the institution, a questionnaire with 60 closed-ended questions was prepared and implemented. The validity of the questionnaire was calculated and confirmed by experts, the validity of the structure using factor analysis, and its reliability was calculated using Cronbach's alpha of 0.97%.
Discussion and Conclusion: The results of the data analysis show: 1. The designed model has a good fit. 2. From the students' point of view, the current situation of all components related to the effectiveness of m- learning is lower than the theoretical average (2.5). 3. Finally, students state that among the identified components, the learner's mental norms are the most important in the effectiveness, and appropriate infrastructure is of the most minor importance.
Executors and policymakers of Mehr Alborz Higher Education Institute (electronic) Before implementing the m- learning system and when developing a strategic and operational plan, it is necessary to pay attention to issues such as; the intention of continuing mobile learning, information, and communication technology literacy, understanding the usefulness of mobile learning, ease of using mobile learning and providing the appropriate infrastructure for its implementation. In this regard, to continuously improve the quality and increase the effectiveness of mobile learning, it is suggested that operational mechanisms be designed, implemented, and continuously evaluated based on the most critical identified challenges.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Mobile Learning
  • Effectiveness
  • E-learning Environment
  • Higher Education
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