The Mechanism of Interaction between the Driving Forces of Flipped Inquiry-Based Technological Learning (Fibtel): Exploring the Special Importance of Learning Environment and Context

Document Type : Scientific - Research


1 Ph.D. Student of Information Technology in Higher Education, Department of Educational Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Educational Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran


Objectives: Teaching and learning are one of the main activities of universities and institutes of higher education that take place either in formal environments or with non-formal education. To present an innovative approach to academic teaching and learning, the present study sought to introduce a design model for mixed teaching methods; the pedagogical model is called "Flipped Inquiry-Based Technological Learning" or Fibtel.
Materials and Methods: In terms of purpose, this study was an applied one and in terms of how to collect the data needed to answer the two research questions, it is classified as an exploratory mixed method design. A systematic review and inductive content analysis of 59 articles with Q1 and Q2 scientific validity, a purposeful survey of the views of 30 higher education specialists, and an interactive management (IM) session with the purposeful presence of 13 experts were used to identify the Fibtel driving forces and their sub-elements. To interpretive-structural modeling (ISM) of the mentioned drives, data related to the views of 22 purposefully selected specialists were collected through a structural self-interaction matrix questionnaire and analyzed through cross-impact matrix multiplication applied to classification (MICMAC) technique. The statistical samples of the study were selected through the favorable informants’ method. In addition, interpretive validity has been used to increase the accuracy and agreement through the findings. 
Discussion & Conclusions: The results showed that the Fibtel interpretive-structural model with three levels of interaction has 9 causal driving forces and 76 sub-elements which are generally constructivism type: learning context, instructional plan designing, technological requirements, learners' competencies, learning content and resources, facilitation, learning activities, interaction opportunities, and learning assessment and feedback. Except for the one-way interaction of the learning context driver, the interaction mechanism of other driving forces is a two-way linkage. This type of interaction mechanism suggests 1. The organizational context and culture in Iranian university settings are very important and their influence on other factors affects learning. Therefore, without modifying and changing the organizational context and culture, changes in other factors that affect learning promotion will not have much effect practically. 2. To make major changes to the academic classroom system, there is no need to design extensive programs or a variety of technologies; rather, it is necessary to identify and find the critical, sensitive, and determined points of students' learning (drivers and their elements). Then, by applying a small and intelligent change in the interaction between them, steer academic learning and research toward greater change.


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