Identifying the dominant educational leadership model and describing its features in the high schools in Birjand

Document Type : Scientific - Research


1 Master of Arts in Educational Management, Faculty of Education & Psychology, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Education & Psychology, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Iran.


Objective: The main aim of this study is to identifying the dominant educational leadership model and describing its features of high schools in Birjand base on Tony Bush (2003, 2008, 2014)'s viewpoint,.
Materials and methods: mixed research method (QUAN-QUAL) was used. First, for recognizing the dominant leadership Models, the requisite quantitative data have been provided through the researcher-made questionnaire. The statistical population of the study consists of all principals and teachers in high schools of Birjand city including 262 persons. 252 of them were selected by available sampling method as participants of the study. Thus, in each school, the team comprised a principal and at least 4 teachers who had the most experience with the relevant principal at that school. Then, for describing the characteristics of the dominant leadership model in the schools studied, using semi-structured interviews with teachers and principals, data were gathered and analyzed. Key educators formed all school principals and teachers who, based on the results of quantitative data analysis in the first phase, had the highest average of the dominant leadership model (interpersonal leadership), with 9 principals and 12 teachers. Therefore, the key criteria for choosing key participants can be the interpersonal leadership model as the dominant leadership model and at least two years of experience with the relevant principal. For analyzing qualitative data, interpretive analysis method was used.
Result and Discussion: Analysis of the quantitative data showed that the interpersonal leadership was the dominant leadership model in the studied schools, and in turn, moral leadership, transformational leadership, contingent leadership, instructional leadership, managerial leadership, participative leadership, postmodern leadership and transactional leadership models were reported as the highest mean scores”. Based on these results in first stage, playing the managerial role, support of teachers and students, principal’s personality, respect to others, the concern of improving teaching and learning, and participation are the most important features of dominant leadership model in the studied high schools. An interpersonal leadership model is a model that focuses on the close relationships between leaders and teachers, students, and other stakeholders. According to West Burnham (2001) and Touhie and Kugalan (1997), interpersonal leadership emphasizes the importance of collaboration and interpersonal relationships.
According these results, interpersonal leadership was reported as the most influential type of school leadership. However, other aspects of school leadership also are important in the field of school leadership. Therefore, it is necessary for principals that to recognize the function of leadership and leadership models in school. Also, regarding the importance of interpersonal relationships, it seems that strengthening the communication and human skills especially between principal and teachers can be one out him most syllabuses in training programs. Interpersonal leadership can be viewed as prerequisite for other school leadership models such as moral leadership and the transformational leadership models but there is a sense of concern and risk that the instructional leadershipmodel as the main aspect of school leadership was reported with lower absolute level on these models of school leadership. Therefore, consideration of this model is so necessary for school improvement and effectiveness.


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