Construction and Validation of the Questionnaire of Individual Systemic Thinking

Document Type : Scientific - Research


1 Ph.D. Student of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Education & Psychology, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Education & Psychology, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran.

3 Professor, Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Education & Psychology, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran.

4 Associate Professor, Department of Educational Leadership & Development, Faculty of Education & Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.


Objective: Complexity understanding and systemic thinking deals with learning dynamism, the ability to understand the situation, the relations and interactions between phenomena and to adapt with different ideas even the opposing ones. Systemic thinking gives the people a special insght to adapt themselves with the complex world in which they live. It helps them to face the problems with sharpness. To acquire the skills of systemic thinking in universities can provide the foundations to grow systemic thinking and to understand the complexities of the community. In order to guide the academic orientation toward conplexsities' understanding and curriculum fulfilment is necessary in today's universities because by this, the leaners will be able to understand the relations between different field and will understand the complex relations between different phenomena. The study aims to construct and validation a queationaire for Individual Systemic Thinking (IST).
Materials and methods: This is a descriptive and test making research. The population was the whole undergraduate students in Shahid Chamran University who studies in the school year 2016. The sampling method was multistage cluster random and involved 450 students. To design the questionnaire, first the scientific texts were investigated and the experts were interviewed, then the main factors of individual systemic thinking were selected. Consulting with a team of three experts led to 158 items. These 158 Items were analyzed in different stages and finally the quesationaire with 54 item was designed. In analyzing data, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, concurrent criterion validity and internal consistency were used.
Results and discussion: Findings show that IST is psychometrically reliable to assess the different dimensions of individual systemic thinking among university students. It can be used as a tool to assess and recognize the students’ status in terms of IST. The five factors which were identified in the research are the main dimendions of systemic thinking and this is consistent whih the different researches done in this field.  Individual systemic thinking deals with the ability to understand non-linear relations, reciprocal relations of social-environmental, on time evaluations and decision making, and dynamic behavior in students. Regarding the findings of this reserach and other growing researches about Individual systemic thinking in educational systems and its necessities in the community, the curriculum developers of universities should prioritize the systemic thinking and teach it to students. So it is recommended that the methodology of systemic thinking skills be taught to students and be strengthend and the opportunities be provided to fulfill the curriculum which expand individual systemic thinking for professors. The professors should design the curriculum in a way that empowers the ndividual systemic thinking for Students and equip them with this ability.


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