Modeling School Leadership in Teachers work Engagement through School Culture, Empowerment and Job Characteristics

Document Type : Scientific - Research


1 Ph.D. in Educational Management, Mohaghegh Ardebili University, Department of Education, Ardebil, Iran.

2 Professor, Department of Education, Mohaghegh Ardebili University, Ardebil, Iran.

3 Associate Professor, Department of Education, Mohaghegh Ardebili University, Ardebil, Iran.

4 Associate Professor, Department of Counseling, Mohaghegh Ardebili University, Ardebil, Iran.


Objective: The aim of this study is modeling principals’ instructional leadership through school culture, empowerment and job characteristics of teachers in their job engagement.
Materials and Methods: The study method is structural equation modeling and for this purpose five research tool known as a Principal Instructional Management Rating Scale by Hallinger and Wang (2015), school culture survey by Gruenert (2005), Job Diagnostic Survey by Hackman and Oldham (1975), Psychological Empowerment Questionnaire by Spreitzer (1995) and Job Engagement questionnaire by Schaufeli and Baker (2003) was used for data collection.  This survey was administered to 250 subjects whom selected through stratified sampling method.
Results and Conclusion: The results showed that the model fit the data.  (RMSEA=0. 067, CFI =0. 99, GFI=0. 87) and the relationship between educational leadership and job engagement is mediated by school culture, empowerment and job characteristics of teachers.The finding that the direct relation between instructional leadership and work engagement was non-significant in the model and the first hypothesis was not sup‌ported, is because of some probable gaps between employees and leadership. The positive association of instructional leadership and school culture reveals nessesary attention to cultural requirements before any change of approach. And those principals who can't shape a new culture often fail. Therefore, principals need to work harder at articulating the basis of reform and at creating interest among teachers in engaging in education. One of the more powerful influences a leader can have on followers is in the ‘management of meaning’ as leaders define and shape the ‘reality’ in which followers work. School culture has role in increasing teachers’ psy‌chological empowerment. So school culture which is based on open communica‌tion and flexibility allows teachers to participate in decision making and ex-press their opinions and support feedback and this in turn, will increase work engagement. When leaders thus increase employees’ degree of authority, deci‌sion-making and accountability, share information and support, develop and coach employees for innovative performance, employees will experience feel‌ings of control. When individuals feel that their inputs are valued and that they make a meaningful contribution to the business strategy (impact), they will feel more engaged. Empowerment needs cultural background to make employees ready to accept new responcibilities. In other words the effectiveness of empowerment among different cultures is variable. For instance in low power-distance cultures it is more effective. So organizations need to define empowerment and consider it in their statement of mission as a cultural component and then commencing to internalize new culture. This procedure reqires changing the attitude of either employees and whole system and considering empowerment strategy of organization according to the needs and culture of all those who are involved. Since managers are mostly characterised as being the decision makers, empowerment strategies need to start where the power lies, at the top. Given the increasing complexity of the global environment, it is no longer con‌ceivable for managers to be the source of all knowledge; therefore, managers need to consult and involve workers in the decision-making process as opposed to merely expecting worker compliance. It is suggested for school principals to take educational leadership approach in their management.  Principals as instructional leaders can develop positive and collaborative school culture by helping teachers to improve their capability of collective leadership, collaborating each other and creating common vision.  They can be effective in increasing meaningfulness through inspiring worthiness of work and organizational goals and explanation of social influence of teachers’ activities.


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