Elementary School Teachers’ Attitude toward Inclusive Education

Document Type : Scientific - Research


1 Assistant Professor of Curriculum Planning, Islamic Azad University, Tehran Branch

2 Graduate Master Curriculum Islamic Azad University


The aim of this survey research was to study the elementary school teachers’ attitudes toward the inclusive education. Using stratified random sampling method, 177 teachers (149 females & 28 males) were selected from primary school teachers of educational region 3 in Tehran, Iran in academic year of 2014-2015. Attitude Toward Mainstreaming Scale (ATMS) questionnaire was used as a research tool. The data were analyzed by One-Sample T test, Independent-Sample T test. Results showed that the primary school teachers have a negative attitude toward philosophy of inclusive education. They didn’t have sufficient knowledge in terms of the philosophy of inclusive education. In addition, such teachers have estimated weak performance regarding their abilities to teach SENs students. The results also showed that the teachers evaluated SEN students’ behavior negatively. There was no significant relationship between teachers’ attitudes, gender and receiving special training related to SEN (Special Education Needs) students. These findings have a critical value for educational policy makers and planners because of their effect on inclusion process in the system of education.


 Ainscow, M., & Cesar, M. (2006). Inclusive education ten years after Salamanca: setting the agenda. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 21(3), 231-238.
Ainscow, M., Booth, T., Dyson, A., Farell, P., Frankham, J., Gallannaugh, F., Howes, A., & Smith, R. (2006). Improving schools: developing inclusion. London: Routledge.
Avramidis, E. & Norwich, B. (2002). Teachers’ attitudes towards integration/inclusion: a review of the literature. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 17(2), 129–147.
Avramidis, E., Bayliss, P. & Burden, R. (2000). A Survey into Mainstream Teachers’Attitudes Towards the Inclusion of Children with Special Educational Needs in the Ordinary School in one Local Education Authority. Educational Psychology, 20(2), 58-69.
Bender, W.N., Vail, e.O., & Scott, K. (1995). Teachers' attitudes towards increased mainstreaming: Implementing effective instruction for students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities. 28(2), 87-94.
Cook, B.G. Tankersley, M., Cook, L., & landrum, T.J. (2000). Teachers'attitudes towards their included students with disabilities. Exceptional Children, 67(1), 4- 15.
Coots. J. J., Bishop, K.D., & Gremt-Scheyer, M. (1998). Supporting elementary age students with significant disabilities in general education classrooms: Personal perspectives on inclusion. Education and Training in Mmenental Retardation and Developmental Disaabilities, 33,317-330.
D'Alonzo, BJ., Giordano, G. & Vanleeuwen, D.M. (1997). Perceptions by teachers about the benefits and liabilities of inclusion. Preventing School Failure, Journal of rural special education quarterly, 3(3), 59- 67.
Daniel, L. G., & King, D. A. (1997). Impact of inclusion education on academic achievement, student behavior and self-esteem, and parental attitudes. Journal of Educational Research, 91(2), 67-80.
Hardman, M.L., Drew, c.L., & Egan, M.W. (2002). Human exceptionality. Boston, MA: Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data.
Heflin, L.J., & Bullock, L.M. (1999). Inclusion of students with emotional behavioural disorders: A survey of teachers in general and special education. Journal of Preventing School Failure, 43(3), 72-90.
Huber, K. D., Rosenfeld, J. G., & Fiorello, C. A. (2001). The differential impact of inclusion and inclusive practices on high, average, and low achieving general education students. Journal of Psychology in the Schools, 38(1), 497-504.
Hutchinson, N.L., & Martin, A.K. (1999). Fostering inclusive beliefs and practices during pre-service teacher education through communication of practice. Teacher Education and Special Education. 22(4), 278-292.
Jobb, D., Rust, J. O., & Brissie, J. (1995). Teacher attitudes toward inclusion of students with disabilities into regular classrooms. Journal of Education, 117(1), 148-152.
Jones, F. J. (1991). A survey of teachers' attitudes toward mainstreaming the handicapped. Journal of Education, 78(1), 102-122.
Jones, M. N., Thorn, C.R., Chow, P., Thompson, I.S., & Wilde, C. (2002). Equifinality: Parents'and students' attitudes towards a student-centered approach to integration. Education, 122(3), 624-636.
Larivee, B. (8912). Factors underlying regular classroom teachers’ attitude towards mainstreaming. Psychology in School, 19, 374-379.
Luster, J. N., & Durrett, J. (2003). Does educational placement matter in the performance of students with disabilities? Paper presented at the meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association, Biloxi, MS.
Mastropieri, M. & Scruggs, T. (2000). The inclusive classroom: Strategies for effective instruction. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice- Hall.
Mastropieri, M & Scruggs, T. (2004) (2nd Ed). The inclusive classroom: Strategies for effective instruction. USA: Prentice Hall, Inc.
McLeskey, J., & Waldron, N.L. (2002). School change and inclusive schools: Lessons learned from practice. Phi Delta Kappa, 84(1), 65-73.
Monsen, J., Ewing, D. L., & Kwoka, M. (2081). Teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion, perceived adequacy of support and classroom learning environment. Learning Environ Resarch, 17(1), 113–126.
Pearman, E. L., Barnhart, M. W., Huang, A. M., & Mellblom, C. (1992). Educating all students in school: Attitudes and beliefs about inclusion. Education and Training in Mental Retardation, 27, 177-182.
Peltier, G. (1997). The effect of inclusion on non-disabled children: A review of the research. Contemporary Education, 68(4), 234-238.
Ross, F. C., & Wax, I. (1993). Inclusionary program for children with language and/or learning disabilities: Issues in teacher readiness. Education, 97(1), 118-122.
Salazar, M. G., & Flores, M. P. (2003). Beliefs of educational personnel concerning the inclusion for individuals with disabilities. Special Education, 16(1), 56-72.
Shade. R.A., & Stewart, R. (2001). General education and special education pre-service teachers' attitudes towards inclusion. Prel'enting School Failure, 46(1), 37-42.
Sebba, J., & Sachdev, D. (1997). What it works in inclusive education? Exceptional Children, 104(2), 18-30.
Tompkins, R., & Deloney, P. (1995). Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL): Issues about change: Inclusion: The pros and cons. New Jersey: Prentice-HalI.
Vaughn, S., Schumn, J., Jallard, B., Slusher, J., & Saumell, L. (1996). Teachers' views of inclusion. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice. 11(2), 96-106.
Ward, J., Center, Y., & Bochner, S. (1994).A question of attitudes: Integrating children with disabilities into regular classrooms. British Journal of Special Education, 21, 34-3
Westwood, P., & Graham, L. (2000). How many children with special needs in regular classes? Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities, (5)3, 24-35.
Whitaker, P. (2004). Fostering shared play and communication between mainstream peers and children with autism: approaches, outcomes and experiences. British Journal of Special Education, 31(4), 215-223.