Designing and Validation of Instructional Quality Model for Universities in Iran

Document Type : Scientific - Research


1 Assistant Professor of Studies in Educational Innovations and Training, Institute for Research & Planning in Higher Education, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Management and Management Science, Faculty of Humanities, Khodabandeh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khodabandeh, Iran.


Objective: The present study was conducted in order to continuously improve the quality and with the aim of designing and validating the educational quality model of Iranian universities.
Materials and Methods: The research was conducted through a combined approach (qualitative-quantitative) with exploratory design-tool development model. In the qualitative part of the research, semi-structured exploratory interviews were conducted with 18 higher education experts through non-probabilistic purposive sampling. The results of the interviews were analyzed through the field theory method in three stages of interval coding, axial coding and selective coding. In a small part, after that, all the categories that make up the educational quality model of Iranian universities were identified. A questionnaire with 77 questions was designed. After designing the questionnaire, in a preliminary study, in order to estimate the validity, the questionnaire was sent to 42 experts, experts and professors proficient in the subject of research and the questionnaire. At this stage, the reliability coefficient was 0.88. Following corrective feedback, a revised version of the questionnaire was administered to 166 higher education experts selected through stratified random sampling. In the implementation of the main questionnaire, the reliability coefficient was 0.941. Data obtained from the questionnaires were analyzed using SPSS software version 24 and Amos version 24.
Discussion and Conclusion: In the qualitative part of the research, in the first stage of open coding, 79 major categories were obtained. The data of the second stage of open coding were classified into 77 major categories. In the axial coding stage, 6 nuclear categories were identified. In the selective coding stage, following the presentation of an integrated, convergent model with a high level of abstraction, the six nuclear categories were again categorized according to their conditional, strategic and consequential characteristics. Then, in the form of a logical model based on the understanding and interpretation of higher education experts, the category of comprehensible education was selected as the final core category. In the quantitative part, by modeling structural equations, it was determined that all factors (courses and fields of study, training courses, general and extracurricular education, curricula, educational performance and educational services) were approved and had a factor burden. They are enough to predict the educational quality pattern of the country's universities. Also, according to the fit indices, educational quality model Iranian universities have a very good fit. The results showed that the educational quality of universities is a complex and multidimensional concept. Considering that the pressure for accountability of universities by suppliers of funds (government, taxpayers, families, etc.) and consumers of higher education (students, industry, market, etc.) has transformed the quality of education Concerned about the very important concern of higher education institutions, it is suggested that universities, in order to institutionalize their effective organizational activities, to develop quality according to the perspective of higher education and the cultural characteristics of the country. Also, due to the complexity of the university organization, pay attention to all aspects of university quality as a whole. An island view, partiality, partisanship and simplification, and highlighting some dimensions and ignoring other dimensions, will degrade the academic quality. In addition, by conducting comparative studies, to gain knowledge about the educational status of other universities in the country and the world, and to gain the required knowledge in order to have a competitive advantage.


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