طراحی و اعتباریابی الگوی کیفیت آموزشی برای دانشگاه‌های کشور

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه نوآوری آموزشی و درسی، مؤسسه پژوهش و برنامه‌ریزی آموزش عالی، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار گروه برنامه‌ریزی علوم اداری و مدیریت، دانشکده علوم انسانی واحد خدابنده، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، خدابنده، ایران.

10.52547/MPES.14.2.221

چکیده

هدف: پژوهش حاضر، در راستای ارتقای مستمر کیفیت و با هدف طراحی و اعتباریابی الگوی کیفیت آموزشی دانشگاه‌های ایران انجام شد.
مواد و روش‌ها: پژوهش از طریق رویکرد ترکیبی (کیفی-کمی) با طرح اکتشافی–مدل توسعه ابزار انجام شد. در بخش کیفی پژوهش، از طریق نمونه‌گیری هدف‌مند غیراحتمالی، با 18 نفر از خبرگان آموزش عالی، مصاحبه‌ی اکتشافی نیمه‌ساختارمند به عمل آمد. نتایج حاصل از مصاحبه‌ها، از طریق روش نظریه‌ی زمینه‌ای، در سه مرحله‌ی کدگذاری باز، کدگذاری محوری و کدگذاری گزینشی، تحلیل شد. در بخش کمی، پس از آنکه، تمام مقوله‏های تشکیل‏دهنده‌ی الگوی کیفیت آموزشی دانشگاه‌های ایران مشخص شد. پرسشنامه‌ای با 77 سؤال طراحی شد. پس از طراحی پرسشنامه، در یک بررسی مقدّماتی، به‌منظور برآورد میزان روایی، پرسشنامه به 42 نفر از صاحب‌نظران، خبرگان، کارشناسان و اساتید مسلط به موضوع تحقیق و پرسشنامه ارسال شد. در این مرحله، ضریب پایایی 88/0 به دست آمد. پس از اعمال بازخوردهای اصلاحی، نسخه تجدیدنظر شده‌ی پرسشنامه، روی 166 نفر از خبرگان آموزش عالی، که از طریق نمونه‌گیری طبقه‌ای تصادفی انتخاب شده بودند، اجرا شد. در اجرای پرسشنامه اصلی، ضریب پایایی 941/0 به دست آمد. داده‌های به دست آمده از پرسشنامه‌ها، از طریق نرم‌افزار SPSS نسخه‌ی 24 و Amos نسخه‌ی 24 تحلیل شد.
بحث و نتیجه‌گیری: در بخش کیفی پژوهش، در مرحله‌ی اول کدگذاری باز، 79 مقوله‌ی عمده به دست آمد. داده‌های مرحله‌ی دوم کدگذاری باز، در قالب 77 مقوله عمده طبقه‌بندی شد. در مرحله کدگذاری محوری، 6 مقوله‌ی هسته‌ای تعیین شد. در مرحله‌ی کدگذاری گزینشی، به دنبال ارایه‌ی یک الگوی تلفیقی، همگرا و برخوردار از سطح انتزاعی بالا، دوباره 6 مقوله‌ی هسته‌ای، برحسب ویژگی‌های شرایطی، راهبردی و پیامدی طبقه‌بندی شد. سپس، در قالب یک الگوی منطقی و با تکیه‌بر درک و تفسیر خبرگان آموزش عالی، مقوله‌ی آموزش فهم‌آفرین، به‌عنوان مقوله‌ی هسته‌ای نهایی انتخاب شد. در بخش کمی، با انجام مدل‌یابی معادلات ساختاری، مشخص شد، تمام عوامل (مقاطع و رشته‌های تحصیلی، دوره‌های آموزشی، آموزش عمومی و فرادانشگاهی، برنامه‌های درسی، عملکرد آموزشی و خدمات آموزش) مورد تأیید بوده و دارای بار عاملی کافی جهت پیش‌بینی الگوی کیفیت آموزشی دانشگاه‌های کشور هستند. هم‌چنین، با توجه به، شاخص‌های برازش، الگوی کیفیت آموزشی دانشگاه‌های ایران از برازش بسیار مطلوبی برخوردار است. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد، کیفیت آموزشی دانشگاه‌ها، مفهومی پیچیده و چندبعدی است. با عنایت به اینکه، اجبار  برای لزوم پاسخگویی دانشگاه‌ها و مؤسسات آموزش عالی در برابر تأمین‌کنندگان منابع مالی (خانواده‌ها، مؤدیان، دولت و...) و مصرف‌کنندگان آموزش عالی (دانشجویان، بازار، صنعت و...)، کیفیت آموزشی را تبدیل به دغدغه‌ی دائم‌التزاید کرده است، پیشنهاد می‌شود، دانشگاه‌ها، در راستای نهادینه‌سازی فعالیت‌های اثربخش سازمانی خود، به توسعه‌ی کیفی با توجه به دورنمای آموزش عالی و مختصات فرهنگی کشور بپردازند. علاوه بر این، با انجام مطالعات تطبیقی نسبت به وضعیت آموزشی سایر دانشگاه‌های کشور و جهان آگاهی کسب کند و در جهت داشتن مزیت رقابتی، دانش مورد نیاز خود را به دست آورد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Designing and Validation of Instructional Quality Model for Universities in Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyyedeh Maryam Hosseini Largani 1
  • Mohammad Mojtabazadeh 2
1 Assistant Professor of Studies in Educational Innovations and Training, Institute for Research & Planning in Higher Education, Tehran, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Management and Management Science, Faculty of Humanities, Khodabandeh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khodabandeh, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Objective: The present study was conducted in order to continuously improve the quality and with the aim of designing and validating the educational quality model of Iranian universities.
Materials and Methods: The research was conducted through a combined approach (qualitative-quantitative) with exploratory design-tool development model. In the qualitative part of the research, semi-structured exploratory interviews were conducted with 18 higher education experts through non-probabilistic purposive sampling. The results of the interviews were analyzed through the field theory method in three stages of interval coding, axial coding and selective coding. In a small part, after that, all the categories that make up the educational quality model of Iranian universities were identified. A questionnaire with 77 questions was designed. After designing the questionnaire, in a preliminary study, in order to estimate the validity, the questionnaire was sent to 42 experts, experts and professors proficient in the subject of research and the questionnaire. At this stage, the reliability coefficient was 0.88. Following corrective feedback, a revised version of the questionnaire was administered to 166 higher education experts selected through stratified random sampling. In the implementation of the main questionnaire, the reliability coefficient was 0.941. Data obtained from the questionnaires were analyzed using SPSS software version 24 and Amos version 24.
Discussion and Conclusion: In the qualitative part of the research, in the first stage of open coding, 79 major categories were obtained. The data of the second stage of open coding were classified into 77 major categories. In the axial coding stage, 6 nuclear categories were identified. In the selective coding stage, following the presentation of an integrated, convergent model with a high level of abstraction, the six nuclear categories were again categorized according to their conditional, strategic and consequential characteristics. Then, in the form of a logical model based on the understanding and interpretation of higher education experts, the category of comprehensible education was selected as the final core category. In the quantitative part, by modeling structural equations, it was determined that all factors (courses and fields of study, training courses, general and extracurricular education, curricula, educational performance and educational services) were approved and had a factor burden. They are enough to predict the educational quality pattern of the country's universities. Also, according to the fit indices, educational quality model Iranian universities have a very good fit. The results showed that the educational quality of universities is a complex and multidimensional concept. Considering that the pressure for accountability of universities by suppliers of funds (government, taxpayers, families, etc.) and consumers of higher education (students, industry, market, etc.) has transformed the quality of education Concerned about the very important concern of higher education institutions, it is suggested that universities, in order to institutionalize their effective organizational activities, to develop quality according to the perspective of higher education and the cultural characteristics of the country. Also, due to the complexity of the university organization, pay attention to all aspects of university quality as a whole. An island view, partiality, partisanship and simplification, and highlighting some dimensions and ignoring other dimensions, will degrade the academic quality. In addition, by conducting comparative studies, to gain knowledge about the educational status of other universities in the country and the world, and to gain the required knowledge in order to have a competitive advantage.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Quality of Education
  • Higher education
  • University
  • Background Theory
  • Design And Validation
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