مطالعه کیفی مهارت‌های مورد نیاز معلمان برای اجرای موفق آموزش فراگیر (نمونه مورد مطالعه: معلمان شهرستان تربت‌حیدریه)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه روان‌شناسی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه بیرجند، بیرجند، ایران

2 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد روان‌شناسی تربیتی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه بیرجند، بیرجند، ایران

10.52547/MPES.14.1.255

چکیده

هدف: پیاده‌سازی آموزش فراگیر یکی از چالش‌های مهم نظام آموزشی است. یکی از مشکلات اصلی در اجرای آموزش فراگیر، نبود آمادگی لازم معلمان آموزش عمومی برای کار در زمینه‌های آموزش فراگیر است. بر این اساس مطالعه حاضر با هدف شناسایی مهارت‌های مورد نیاز معلمان برای اجرای موفق آموزش فراگیر انجام گرفت.
مواد و روش‌ها: پژوهش حاضر در چارچوب رویکرد پدیدارشناسی صورت گرفت. داده‌ها با مصاحبه نیمه‌ساختاریافته گردآوری شد. انتخاب شرکت‌کنندگان پژوهش از میان کلیه معلمان شهرستان تربت حیدریه، در چارچوب منطق نمونه‌گیری در رویکرد پدیدارشناسی و به صورت هدفمند (روش نمونه‌گیری با نمونه ناهمگون) انجام پذیرفت و 30 نفر از معلمان (15 نفر معلم شاغل در مدارس استثنایی و 15 نفر معلم شاغل در مدارس عادی) انتخاب و مورد مصاحبه قرار گرفتند. داده‌ها با روش تحلیل محتوای کیفی کدگذاری، طبقه‌بندی و در نهایت تم‌ها تعیین شدند.
بحث و نتیجه‌گیری: بر مبنای نتایج کدگذاری مصاحبه‌ها و تجزیه و تحلیل کیفی، معلمان مهارت‌های‌ مورد نیاز جهت اجرای موفق آموزش فراگیر را در هفت تم «توانمندی در روابط انسانی»، «ویژگی‌های شخصیتی مناسب»، «توانمندی علمی»، «مهارت در تدریس»، «توانمندی در مدیریت کلاس»، «تعهد شغلی» و «کمک به رشد همه‌جانبه دانش‌آموزان» مطرح نمودند. نتایج هم‌چنین نشان داد که «توانمندی معلم در روابط انسانی» مهم‌ترین مهارت مورد نیاز معلمان در این خصوص می‌باشد. مصاحبه‌شوندگان برای «ویژگی‌های شخصیتی مناسب» خصوصیاتی از جمله صبوری و انگیزه بالا را مطرح نمودند. آشنایی با انواع معلولیت‌ها و آموزش فراگیر نیز مواردی از «توانمندی علمی» بودند. استفاده از روش‌های متنوع و نوین در تدریس مثالی از «مهارت در تدریس» و توانایی در اداره کلاس نمونه‌ای از «توانمندی در مدیریت کلاس» می‌باشد که توسط معلمان عنوان شدند. مصاحبه‌شوندگان هم‌چنین توجه به مسائل پرورشی را از دیگر مهارت‌های مورد نیاز معلمان برشمردند که به صورت «کمک به رشد همه جانبه دانش‌آموزان» مطرح شد. ویژگی‌های «انتقادپذیری، تسلط به کتب دانش‌آموزان با نیاز ویژه، داشتن طرح درس و مدیریت زمان» از یافته‌های نوین پژوهش حاضر بودند که در هیچ‌یک از پژوهش‌های پیشین شناسایی و مطرح نشده‌اند. با اتخاذ رویکرد فراگیر در امر آموزش، نقش معلم در تضمین موفقیت تحصیلی هر دانش‌آموز به یک موضوع اصلی تبدیل شده است که انتظار می‌رود معلمان به‌منظور آماده‌سازی برای آموزش فراگیر به مهارت‌هایی مجهز گردند. در پژوهش حاضر این مهارت‌ها در قالب هفت تم عمده مطرح گردیده است. کاربست و توجه به این مهارت‌ها، اجرای موفق آموزش فراگیر، پشتیبانی از موفقیت همه دانش‌آموزان و برآورده شدن نیازهای فراگیران متنوع را در پی خواهد داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Qualitative Study on Teachers’ Necessary Skills for Successful Implementation of Inclusive Education (Case Study: Torbat-e Heydariyeh Teachers)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Leila Talebzade Shoshtari 1
  • Azadeh Momeni 2
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Birjand University, Birjand. Iran
2 Graduate of Master of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Birjand University, Birjand. Iran
چکیده [English]

Objective: Implementation of inclusive education is a big challenge that the educational system encounters. One of the main problems in implementing inclusive education is that teachers of general education are not sufficiently prepared to work in the fields of inclusive education. Accordingly, the present study was performed to identify needed teachers’ skills to successfully implement inclusive education.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted by using a phenomenological approach. To collect the data, a semi-structured interview was employed. Participants were selected from among all teachers in Torbat-e Heydariyeh considering sampling logic in phenomenological approach, through a purposive sampling technique (i.e. sampling among heterogeneous samples). Accordingly, 30 teachers (15 teaching in special schools; 15 teaching in normal ones) were selected interviewed. Having used an encoding qualitative content analysis method, the researcher classified the codes and, finally, defined the themes.
Result and Discussion: Based on the encoding used in interviews and the qualitative analysis, teachers raised core and necessary skills for a successful implementation of inclusive education in seven themes including “human relations ability”, “appropriate personality traits”, “scientific ability”, “teaching skill”, “class management skill”, “job commitment”, “facilitating holistic development of students”. Based on the findings, “human relations ability” was the most important skill that teachers need. Concerning “appropriate personality traits” such characteristics as patience, high motivation by the interviewees. Familiarity with a variety of disabilities and inclusive education were associated with “scientific ability”. Use of varied and new teaching methods was instances of “teaching skill”. The ability to manage the class was examples of “class management skill” proposed by teachers. Attending to pedagogical issues defined as “facilitating holistic development of students” were other teachers’ skills discussed by the interviewees. Amongst all skills enumerated by the study, such characteristics as “to be open to criticism”, “mastery of textbooks of students with special needs”, “lesson plan development” and “time management” were the new findings of the study which have not been discussed in previous research. Successful inclusive education depends on teachers who are equipped with the knowledge, skill, and qualities necessary for an efficient implementation of such education.  Focus on core skills needed for a successful implementation of an inclusive education discussed here in seven major themes together with programming and taking effective measures for the cultivation of such qualifications during teacher-education as well as in-service courses will further prepare teachers to work in inclusive education; therefore, they can, in addition to satisfying unique needs of all learners, develop an inclusive and a fair educational system, and take steps towards learners’ comprehensive growth and pedagogy.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Teachers’ Preparation
  • Inclusive Education
  • Qualitative Study
  • content analysis
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