بازنمایی معنایی تجارب زیسته دانش آموزان دوزبانه (بلوچ) از آموزش به زبان فارسی: یک مطالعه پدیدارشناسی

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه شهید بهشتی تهران

2 دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

10.29252/mpes.2021.220769.1006

چکیده

چکیده
هدف: پدیده چند زبانی از دیرباز یکی از مسائل اصلی جامعه ایرانی بوده است. در کشور ما هرساله تعداد زیادی از دانش آموزان با تسلط به زبان قومی و مادری‌شان و با آشنایی اندک به زبان فارسی وارد دبستان می‌شوند؛ اما از گذشته تاکنون نظام آموزشی ما بااین‌همه کودک برخورد زبانی واحدی داشته است و همه آنان را فارسی‌زبان می‌داند. هدف پژوهش حاضر، بازنمایی معنایی تجارب زیسته دانش آموزان دوزبانه (بلوچ) ابتدایی از آموزش به زبان فارسی بود.
مواد و روش‌ها: رویکرد حاکم بر پژوهش حاضر از نوع پژوهش کیفی بوده و روش پدیدارشناسی در آن به کار گرفته‌شده است و داده‌های آن به روش مصاحبه نیمه ساختاریافته گردآوری‌شده‌اند. تحلیل داده‌ها با استفاده از روش تحلیل محتوای مضمونی انجام گرفت. شرکت‌کنندگان در این پژوهش، دانش آموزان مقطع ابتدایی شهرستان سراوان بوده است که با روش نمونه‌گیری هدفمند از بین پایه‌های چهارم، پنجم و ششم ابتدایی که در سال ۹۹-۱۳۹۸ مشغول به تحصیل بودند، انتخاب شدند.
بحث و نتیجه‌گیری: تحلیل عمیق دیدگاه‌های دانش آموزان، موجب شناسایی و دسته‌بندی هفت مضمون سازمان دهنده شامل: نگرش دانش آموزان نسبت به مدرسه با سه مضمون پایه مکان پرورشی، مکان عاطفی- اجتماعی و مکان آموزشی؛ اثرات کاربرد زبان مادری در مدرسه با سه مضمون پایه یادگیری معنادار، ادراک عمیق و احساس قوی؛ موانع به‌کارگیری زبان مادری در مدرسه با مضمون پایه هزینه بری آموزش زبان مادری؛ جایگاه زبان مادری در مدرسه با چهار مضمون پایه استفاده غیررسمی، استفاده ناچیز، اجبار بر استفاده زبان رسمی و نادیده گرفتن زبان مادری؛ احساس اولیه ورود به مدرسه با دو مضمون پایه احساسات منفی و مکانیسم‌های دفاعی؛ اثرات عدم استفاده زبان مادری در مدرسه با سه مضمون پایه یادگیری سطحی، ضعف در یادگیری و هیجانات منفی و جایگاه زبان مادری با دو مضمون پایه محترم شمردن و هویت بخشی گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

semantic representation of the lived experiences of bilingual (Baluch) students of Persian language education: a phenomenological study

نویسندگان [English]

  • Javad Jahandideh 1
  • Arefi Mahboubeh 2
  • Abasalat Khorasani 2
1 Shahid Beheshti University
2 Shahid Beheshti University
چکیده [English]

Abstract

Purpuse: The phenomenon of multilingualism has long been one of the main problems of Iranian society. In our country, every year a large number of students enter primary school with fluency in their ethnic and mother tongue and with little knowledge of Persian. But from the past until now, our educational system has treated all children in the same language and considers them all Persian-speaking. The aim of the present study was to semantically represent the lived experiences of bilingual (Baluch) primary school students in Persian language education.
Materials and methods: The approach of the present study is a qualitative research and phenomenological method has been used in it and its data have been collected through semi-structured interviews. Data analysis was performed using thematic content analysis method. Participants in this study were primary school students in Saravan who were selected by purposive sampling method from the fourth, fifth and sixth grades of elementary school who were studying in 2019-2020.
Result and Discussion: In-depth analysis of students 'perspectives leads to the identification and categorization of seven organizing themes, including: students' attitudes toward school with three basic themes: educational place, emotional-social place and educational place; Effects of mother tongue application in school with three basic themes of meaningful learning, deep perception and strong feeling; Barriers to using the mother tongue in school with the basic theme of costing mother tongue education; The position of the mother tongue in school with four basic themes: informal use, insignificant use, compulsion to use the official language and ignoring the mother tongue; The initial feeling of entering school with two basic themes of negative emotions and defense mechanisms; The effects of not using mother tongue in school with three basic themes of superficial learning, weakness in learning and negative emotions and the position of mother tongue with two basic themes were respected and identified.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: Persian language education
  • Primary Schools
  • qualitative approach
  • bilingualism
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