طراحی الگوی برنامه درسی (آموزش) مهارت‌های همدلی در دوره متوسطه و ارزیابی اثربخشی آن

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکترای روانشناسی تربیتی، استادیار مجتمع آموزش عالی لار

2 دکترا از دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

3 برنامه درسی

چکیده

هدف: هدف مطالعه حاضر طراحی و ارزیابی الگوی برنامه درسی همدلی برای دانش­آموزان دختر دوره تحصیلی متوسطه دوم بود. به این منظور ابتدا با بررسی، مطالعه و تحلیل مبانی نظری و دیدگاه صاحب نظران دو رشته ی مطالعات برنامه درسی و روانشناسی عناصر برنامه درسی همدلی به دست آمد، سپس میزان کاربردی بودن آن هم از دیدگاه متخصصان و هم در مقام اجرا و بین دانش آموزان مورد بررسی قرار گرفت.
مواد و روش­ها: طرح پژوهش حاضر از نوع آمیخته اکتشافی متوالی کیفی- کمی است که با روش تحلیل محتوای کیفی قیاسی در بخش کیفی و روش پیشنهادی لاوشی (1975) و مطالعه نیمه آزمایشی و از نوع پیش‌آزمون- پس‌آزمون با گروه کنترل در بخش کمی انجام شد. حوزه مورد مطالعه پژوهش در بخش کیفی متون و منابع موجود مرتبط در زمینه همدلی بود و نمونه­گیری تا اشباع نظری ادامه یافت و برای استفاده از روش لاوشی (1975) اعضای پانل به روش نمونه گیری هدفمند از افراد خبره در همدلی انتخاب شدند و مورد مطالعه قرار گرفتند. در قسمت کمی جامعه آماری شامل تمامی دانش­آموزان دختر دوره متوسطه شهرستان نی­ریز بود که نمونه پژوهش 60 نفر از این دانش‌آموزان با استفاده از روش نمونه­گیری تصادفی خوشه­ای چند مرحله‌ای، انتخاب و به دو گروه آزمایش و کنترل گمارده شدند. جهت جمع­آوری داده­ها از مقیاس درجه­بندی جولیف و فارینگتون (2006) و مقیاس درجه­بندی دیویس (1983) استفاده شد. برای گروه آزمایش، آموزش همدلی در 8 جلسه 60 دقیقه­ای برگزار شد در حالی‌که گروه کنترل هیچ‌ گونه مداخله­ای را دریافت نکرد.
بحث و نتیجه­گیری: الگوی پیشنهادی پژوهش برای برنامه درسی مهارت همدلی برای دانش‌آموزان ایرانی دوره متوسطه دوم به با تکیه بر نظریه روانشناسانی مانند راجرز و ادوین روچ در پنج قسمت موضوع، اهداف، رئوس محتوا، روش­های تدریس و روش­های ارزشیابی طراحی گردید و مشتمل بر چهار درس اصلی «مهارت­های مقدماتی همدلی»، «پذیرش دیگران»، «گوش دادن پویا» و «درک دیدگاه دیگران» است که هر درس سرفصل­های جداگانه­ای دارد. در تدوین این الگو کارآمدترین راهکارها چون اجرای پانتومیم، ایفای نقش، نشان دادن بالغ بر صد عکس و تشخیص هیجان و تکالیف تمرینی و خلاق برای ایجاد رفتار همدلی به‌صورت عملی ارائه شد. علاوه بر این در الگو سعی شد به جنبه جنسیت و بافت فرهنگی جنسیت در نحوه ابراز همدلی و کنش­های متقابل مورد توجه قرار گیرد. نکته دیگر برنامه حاضر تخصصی بودن برنامه به سن خاص نوجوانی بود که مثال­ها و تکالیف با محوریت دغدغه­های دوره متوسطه ارائه گردید. نتایج ارزشیابی الگو بر اساس نظر متخصصان برنامه درسی و روانشناسی درباره الگوی طراحی شده، مناسب بوده و آن را تایید کرده است و همچنین بعد از اجرای الگوی برنامه درسی آموزش همدلی افزایش معنادار در نمرات همدلی شناختی، عاطفی، دیدگاه­گرایی، دغدغه­های همدلانه و کاهش معنادار نمره آشفتگی شخصی در گروه آزمایش مشاهده شد؛ بنابراین بر اساس یافته های این پژوهش، آموزش همدلی در قالب الگوی برنامه درسی منجر به ایجاد مهارت­های همدلی در دانش­آموزان خواهد شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Designing a Curriculum Model (Teaching) Empathy Skills in the Course Secondary and evaluating its effectiveness

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sommayeh Gholami 1
  • Sareh Ahmadi 2
  • Hakimeh Hormati 3
1 Ph.d on education psychology. Assistant professor,department of psychology, larestan higher education complex
2 phd allame tabatabaee university
3 curriculum
چکیده [English]

Objective: The purpose of the present study was to design and evaluate the empathy curriculum model for high school female students. For this purpose, empathy curriculum elements were obtained by studying and analyzing the theoretical foundations and perspectives of the two disciplines of curriculum and psychology, and then the extent of its application was evaluated from the viewpoints of experts, executives and students. Materials and Methods: The present study is a qualitative-quantitative method of consecutive exploration using qualitative subtractive analysis and quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest study with control group in quantitative section. The field of study in the qualitative part of the literature was empathy and sampling continued until theoretical saturation. The statistical population consisted of all female high school students in Nayriz. The sample consisted of 60 students who were selected by multistage cluster random sampling and were divided into experimental and control groups. . For the experimental group, empathy training was performed in 8 60-minute sessions, while the control group received no intervention.
Result and Discussion: The proposed research model is designed in five sections: Topics, Goals, Outlines, Teaching Methods, and Assessment Methods and includes four main lessons: "Empathy", "Acceptance of Others", "Dynamic Listening" and "Understanding Others”. In developing this model, the most effective solutions were provided such as pantomime, role playing, over a hundred photographs, and emotion recognition and practice and creative assignments to create empathy behaviors. In addition, the model sought to address gender and the cultural context of gender in how to express empathy and interactions. Another highlight of the program was the specialization of the adolescent-specific program, with examples and assignments centered around high school concerns.The results of the model evaluation were valid according to the curriculum and psychology experts' view of the designed model. Also, after the implementation of the empathy training curriculum model, a significant increase in empathy scores was observed. Perhaps the most important limitation of educational research today is the development of a paradigm whose task is to provide explanatory and explanatory services. Regardless of the need to test them through the use of empirical information, patterns are used to explain. The purpose of model building, such as the development of hypotheses, is to provide a model for testing. It is clear that pattern creation, information gathering and pattern testing should be a seamless activity. Information is needed to validate a template and evaluate its elements, and testing a template may lead to reconstruction or formatting. However, the importance of model testing against empirical information must be emphasized. It is a tool for model validation, reality improvement and effective knowledge sharing through modeling for theoretical knowledge. Since pattern testing is emphasized against empirical information and is effective for pattern validation, the present model must also perform numerous studies and various temporal and spatial conditions to perform a useful model. Since empathy is an essential component of emotional intelligence in classifying UNICEF's life skills, teaching this skill will be effective in using appropriate teaching and assessment methods in the curriculum because the best approach in the curriculum is a skills-based approach to life.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • curriculum
  • empathy curriculum
  • empathy education
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