رهبری تنوع دانشجویان در نظام آموزش عالی: واکاوی پدیدارشناسانه دیدگاه‌های متخصصان

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری مدیریت آموزشی، گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران

3 استادیار گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران

چکیده

هدف: زمینه رهبری آموزش عالی پویا، پیچیده و چند بعدی است. به دلیل پیچیدگی سازمانی، اهداف متعدد و ارزش‌های سنتی دانشگاه‌ها، ماهیت رهبری در آموزش عالی نیز مبهم و بحث‌برانگیز است و این دلایل محققان را به سمت توصیف و تحلیل اساس رهبری در آموزش عالی از منظرهای مختلف سوق داده است. با افزایش تنوع جمعیت دانشجویان در دانشگاه‌ها، نظام آموزش عالی با چالش‌های زیادی به‌منظور ایجاد ظرفیت بیشتر برای آن‌ها مواجه می‌شود و این موقعیت‌ها هر روزه تبدیل به بخشی از چشم‌انداز آموزشی دانشگاه‌ها در آموزش عالی خواهد شد. درک نقش‌ها و مهارت‌های لازم برای هدایت تنوع دانشجویان می‌تواند به دانشگاه‌ها در این زمینه کمک کند. پژوهش حاضر با هدف واکاوی دیدگاه‌های متخصصان در مورد رهبری تنوع دانشجویان در نظام آموزش عالی ایران انجام شده است.
مواد و روش‌ها: نمونه آماری پژوهش شامل تمامی متخصصان حوزه مدیریت، علوم تربیتی، علوم اجتماعی و روانشناسی در دانشگاه‌های کشور بود که با استفاده از روش نمونه‌گیری هدفمند و بر مبنای اشباع نظری یافته‌ها، تعداد 16 نفر از آن‌ها به‌عنوان نمونه انتخاب شدند. رویکرد پژوهش کیفی و روش مطالعه، پدیدارشناسی است، ابزار گردآوری داده‌ها، مصاحبه نیمه ساختاریافته و روش تحلیل آن نیز روش تحلیل موضوع است. داده‌های پژوهش از طریق مشارکت‌کننده، بازخورد همکار و ناظران بیرونی اعتباریابی شدند.
بحث و نتیجه‌گیری: یافته‌های پژوهش نشان داد که شش عامل عدالت‌مداری، تنوع‌مداری، وحدت‌مداری، ارتباط‌مداری، هدایت‌مداری و فرهنگ‌مداری مؤلفه‌های تشکیل دهنده رهبری تنوع دانشجویان در نظام آموزش عالی می‌باشند. هم‌چنین نتایج نشان داد که نظام آموزشی عالی باید به سه دلیل اهمیت فردی، سازمانی و اجتماعی پاسخگویی تنوع موجود در بین دانشجویان باشد. با توجه به یافته‌های پژوهش می‌توان گفت که به دلیل تغییراتی که در روند جمعیتی جامعه و به تبع آن در نظام آموزش عالی اتفاق می‌افتد، تغییراتی نیز در روندهای جمعیتی دانشجویان رخ می‌دهد، به‌طوری که شاهد حضور دانشجویان با قومیت، نژاد، فرهنگ، مذهب و عقاید متفاوت در محیط دانشگاهی خواهیم بود. این تغییرات و تنوع جمعیتی بر ساختار نظام آموزش عالی تأثیر خواهد گذاشت. به دلیل اینکه نظام آموزش عالی از ترکیب افراد و دانشجویان متنوع تشکیل شده است، نیاز به افرادی دارد که این جمعیت متنوع را مدیریت کند و با هدایت درست آن‌ها از توانایی‌های آن‌ها در راستای تحقق اهداف آموزش عالی و جامعه استفاده کند. از این رو رهبری تنوع باید در محیط دانشگاهی جوی را ایجاد کند که تنوع دانشجویان را به رسمیت بشناسد و به ارزش‌های آن‌ها احترام بگذارد. هم‌چنین فرهنگی متحد و همبسته را ایجاد کنند، و از طریق ایجاد رابطه مثبت با دانشجویان از آن‌ها حمایت و سعی در برطرف کردن نیازهای آن‌ها داشته باشد و در برخورد با آن‌ها ارزش‌هایی مانند عدالت، برابری و بی‌طرفی را در نظر بگیرند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Leadership of Student Diversity in the Higher Education System: Phenomenological Examination of Experts' Views

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fariborz Erfanizadeh 1
  • Mohamad Reza Ardalan 2
  • Fakhroalsadat Nasiri 3
  • Afshin Afzali 3
1 PhD Student of Educational Management, Department of Education, Faculty of Humanities, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan. Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Education, Faculty of Humanities, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan. Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Faculty of Humanities, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan. Iran
چکیده [English]

Objective: The context of leadership in higher education is dynamic, complex and multidimensional. Because of the complexity of the organization, multiple goals and traditional values of the universities, the nature of leadership in higher education is also ambiguous and controversial. For these reasons have led researchers to describe and analyze the basis of leadership in higher education from a different perspective. With the increasing diversity of student populations in universities, the Higher education system faces many challenges to create more capacity for them. Every day, these situations will become a part of the university's educational outlook in higher education. Understanding the roles and necessary skills to lead the student diversity can help the universities in this field. The present research aimed to examine the views of experts on the leadership of student diversity in Iran's higher education system.
Materials and Method: The research sample included all the experts in the field of management, education sciences, social sciences, and psychology in Iranian universities which out of whom 16 experts were selected through purposeful sampling and based on theoretical saturation. The research approach is qualitative, and the study method is phenomenology. Data collection tool was a semi-structured interview, and the method of analysis was the topic analysis method. The research data were validated through member checking, peer checking, and external audit.
Result and Discussion: The findings of this study showed that the six factors of justice-oriented, diversity-oriented, unity oriented, communication-oriented, lead oriented, and culture-oriented are components of Leadership of Student Diversity in the higher education system. the results also showed that the higher education system for three reasons individual, organizational and social importance should be responsive to the diversity of students. According to the findings of the study, it can be said that because of the changes is happening in the demographic trend of society and consequently in the higher education system, there are also changes in student demographic trends, so that we will see students with different ethnicities, races, cultures, religions, and beliefs in the university environment. These changes and demographic diversity will affect the structure of the higher education system. Because the higher education system is made up of a diverse combination of individuals and students, it requires individuals to manage this diverse population and with the right guidance of them, use their abilities to fulfill the goals of higher education and society. Therefore, diversity leadership must create a climate within the university environment that recognizes and accepts students' diversity and respects their values. Also, create a united and interconnected culture, support students by building a positive relationship with them, provide their needs, and consider values such as justice, equality, and impartiality in dealing with them.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Diversity Leadership
  • students
  • Higher education
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