واکاوی وضعیت راهیابی دانش آموختگان تکنولوژی آموزشی به بازار کار و تعیین عوامل مؤثر بر آن

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه خوارزمی

2 دانشگاه تربیت مدرس.

3 دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مجازی، تهران

10.29252/mpes.2021.216089.0

چکیده

هدف: پیشرفت جوامع بالاخص کشورهای درحال توسعه تا حد زیادی در گرو گسترش نهادهای دانشگاهی است. همچنین یکی از مهم‌ترین ویژگی‌های نهادهای آموزشی، درهم‌تنیدگی ساختارهای آموزش و اشتغال است. درواقع هر آموزشی باید بازدهی یا توجیه اقتصادی داشته باشد که عالی‌ترین نوع آن ایجاد اشتغال متناسب با فراگیر است. بر این اساس پژوهش حاضر به موضوع وضعیت راهیابی دانشجویان و فارغ‌التحصیلان کارشناسی ارشد و دکتری رشته تکنولوژی آموزشی به بازار کار و عوامل موثر بر آن از نظر متخصصان پرداخته است.
مواد و روش: در پژوهش حاضر از روش توصیفی – پیمایشی استفاده شده و شامل دو مرحله است. در ابتدا جهت شناسایی عوامل موثر در راهیابی دانش آموختگان تکنولوژی آموزشی به بازار کار مصاحبه نیمه‌ساختار انجام گرفت؛ در مرحله دوم بر اساس عوامل شناسایی شده پرسشنامه‌ای  تدوین گردید و برای نظرسنجی از دانشجویان و فارغ‌التحصیلان مقاطع کارشناسی ارشد و دکتری در این زمینه استفاده شد. نمونه آماری در مرحله اول، 24 نفر از اساتید و متخصصان رشته تکنولوژی آموزشی بود که با روش هدفمند از نوع  متجانس انتخاب شدند و در مرحله دوم، 192 نفر از دانشجویان و فارغ‌التحصیلان مقاطع کارشناسی ارشد و دکتری رشته تکنولوژی آموزشی در ایران با روش نمونه‌گیری در دسترس پرسشنامه را تکمیل کردند. اعتبار عوامل شناسایی شده در مصاحبه قبل از توزیع در جامعه آماری برای 3 نفر از اساتید رشته تکنولوژی آموزشی ارسال شد و نظرات و پیشنهادات ایشان اعمال گردید سپس پرسشنامه نهایی تدوین شد؛ روایی پرسشنامه، به روش داوری تخصصی صاحبنظران رشته تکنولوژی آموزشی و اعمال نظرات و اصلاحات ایشان انجام پذیرفت. پایایی نیز بر اساس آلفای کرونباخ معادل74/0 محاسبه شد. تحلیل داده ها در نرم افزار SPSS نسخه 22 انجام گرفت. برای تحلیل داده ها از شاخص‌های آمار توصیفی فراوانی، میانگین و انحراف معیار و برای تعیین تفاوت بین هر یک از گروه‌های عوامل موثر در اشتغال از آزمون t تک نمونه ای و آزمون فریدمن استفاده شد.
بحث و نتیجه‌گیری:در مرحله اول پژوهش طبق نظر متخصصان 22 عامل موثر در اشتغال دانش آموختگان رشته شناسایی شد. این عوامل بر اساس قرابت در چهار حیطه، 1. عوامل مرتبط با رشته، 2. عوامل مرتبط با دانشجویان و فارغ‌التحصیلان، 3. عوامل مرتبط با اساتید رشته،  و4. عوامل مرتبط با جامعه و مسئولان کشور دسته‌بندی شد. طبق نتایج مرحله دوم پژوهش تمام عوامل شناسایی شده به وسیله متخصصان رشته تکنولوژی آموزشی در جذب دانش آموختگان به بازار کار تاثیرگذار هستند. با این حال عوامل آگاهی و بروز بودن دانش اساتید رشته تکنولوژی آموزشی، وجود اساتید تخصصی رشته تکنولوژی آموزشی در اکثر دانشگاه های کشور و تدوین سرفصل های دروس دانشگاه مبتنی بر نیاز بازار کار بیشترین میانگین و عوامل سطح توقع بالای دانشجویان از ماهیت رشته، داشتن دانش بازاریابی، فعالیت انجمن های علمی و شناخت کافی از موقعیت و جایگاه های اجتماعی مرتبط با رشته تحصیلی کمترین میانگین را داشته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analyzing the Employability of Educational Technology Graduates and Detecting the Effecting Factors

نویسندگان [English]

  • Jafar Ahmadigol 1
  • Hojjat Dehghanzadeh 2
  • Eisa Rezaei 3
1 Kharazmi
2 Trabiat Modares University.
3 Virtual University of Medical Sciences, Tehran
چکیده [English]

Objective: The development of societies, especially developing countries, largely depends on the expansion of academic institutions. Also, one of the most important features of educational institutions is the intertwining of education and employment structures. Any education should have economic efficiency, the highest type of which is to create employment appropriate to the student. Based on this, the present study has dealt with the issue of the status of students and graduates of master and doctoral degrees in the field of educational technology to the labor market and the factors affecting it from the perspective of experts.
Materials and Methods: In the present study, a survey method is used and consists of two stages. Initially, a semi-structured interview was conducted to identify the effective factors in guiding educational technology graduates to the labor market; In the second stage, a questionnaire was developed based on the identified factors and was used to survey students and graduates of master and doctoral degrees in this field. The statistical sample in the first stage was 24 professors and specialists in the field of educational technology who were selected by a homogeneous purposeful method. They completed the availability of the questionnaire. The validity of the factors identified in the interview before distribution in the statistical community was sent to 3 professors of educational technology and their comments and suggestions were applied, then the final questionnaire was developed; The validity of the questionnaire was done by the method of a specialized judgment of experts in the field of educational technology. Reliability was calculated based on Cronbach's alpha equal to 0.74. Data analysis was performed in SPSS software version 22. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics of frequency, mean and standard deviation were used, and to determine the differences between each of the groups of factors affecting employment, a one-sample t-test and Friedman test were used.
Discussion and Conclusion: In the first phase of the study, according to experts, 22 factors affecting the employment of graduates were identified. These factors are in four areas: 1. Factors related to the field, 2. Factors related to students and graduates, 3. Factors related to professors, and 4. Factors related to society and country officials. According to the results of the second phase of the research, all the factors identified by experts in the field of educational technology are effective in attracting graduates to the labor market. However, the factors of knowledge of educational technology professors, the existence of experienced professors in educational technology and the compilation of university courses based on the needs of the labor market are the highest average and factors of high student expectations of field, the activity of scientific associations and sufficient knowledge of the social status and positions related to the field of study had the lowest average.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Educational Technology
  • students
  • Graduates
  • employment
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