الگوی طراحي آموزشي مبتنی بر پروژه با الهام از رویکرد سازنده‌گرایی

رحمت اله خسروی, هاشم فردانش

چکیده


یادگیری مبتنی بر پروژه یک رویکرد یادگیری عمیق و جامع برای تدریس و یادگیری در کلاس است که دانش­آموزان را در بررسی و کاوش مسائل معتبر و با ارزش درگیر می­سازد. پروژه­ها تکالیف پیچیده و مبتنی بر سؤالات و مسائل چالش­برانگیزی هستند که دانش­آموزان را در طراحی، حل مسأله، تصمیم­گیری یا فعالیت­های جستجوگرانه درگیر ساخته و فرصتی به آن­ها اعطاء می­کنند تا به­طور نسبتاً مستقل در دوره­های زمانی طولانی مدت، نسبت به یادگیری اقدام کرده و محصولات یا ارائه­های واقع­گرایانه تولید کنند. این نوع یادگیری، به جای ساختار خشک و بسته دارای یک چهارچوب پیچیده و انعطاف­پذیر است. این چهارچوب ویژگی­هایی دارد که توصیف­کننده تعاملات تدریس- یادگیری می­باشد. این مقاله شامل دو بخش است. در بخش نخست، ابتدا رویکرد سازنده­گرایی و پیشینه مربوط به قلمرو یادگیری مبتنی بر پروژه عرضه شده، و سپس الگوي طراحي آموزشي مبتني بر رويكرد پروژه ارائه مي­شود. در بخش دوم، ضمن مطرح کردن یادگیری وب پروژه، الگوی طراحی آموزشی متناسب با آن نیز ارائه می­شود.


واژگان کلیدی


الگوی طراحی آموزشی، یادگیری مبتنی بر پروژه، وب پروژه، سازنده‌گرایی

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