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شناسایی و توصیف الگوی رهبری غالب و ویژگی های آن در مدارس دوره دوم متوسطه شهر بیرجند
سمیه زارع, رضوان حسین قلی زاده, بهروز مهرام

چکیده

هدف: هدف اصلی این پژوهش، مطالعه الگوهاي رهبری آموزشی در مدارس دوره دوم متوسطه بر اساس طبقه‌بندی تونی بوش با تأکید بر شناسایی الگوی رهبری غالب و توصیف ویژگی‌های آن می‌باشد.

مواد و روش: برای دست‌یابی به این هدف، از روش پژوهش آمیخته و طرح کمی – کیفی استفاده شد. نخست به‌منظور شناسایی الگوی رهبری غالب با استفاده از پرسشنامه محقق ساخته، داده‌های کمی موردنیاز گردآوری شدند. کلیه مدیران و معلمان دوره دوم متوسطه شهر بیرجند جامعه آماری این پژوهش را تشکیل دادند که تعداد آن‌ها مشتمل بر 262 نفر می‌باشد. از این مجموع، 252 نفر به‌عنوان نمونه موردمطالعه و به شیوه نمونه­گیری در دسترس انتخاب شدند. بدین ترتیب در هر مدرسه مدیر و حداقل 4 نفر از معلمانی که دارای بیشترین سابقه همکاری با مدیر مربوط در آن مدرسه بودند، گروه موردمطالعه را تشکیل دادند. سپس برای تشریح ویژگی‌های الگوی رهبری غالب در مدارس موردمطالعه با استفاده از مصاحبه نیمه ساخت‌یافته با معلمان و مدیران داده‌های موردنیاز گردآوری و تحلیل شدند. مطلعان کلیدی را کلیه مدیران و معلمان مدارسی تشکیل دادند که بر اساس نتایج تحلیل داده‌های کمی در مرحله نخست، بیشترین میانگین الگوی رهبری غالب (رهبری بین فردی) را به خود اختصاص داده بودند که تعداد آن‌ها برابر با 9 مدیر و 12 معلم می‌باشد. لذا از معیارهای مهم در انتخاب مطلعان کلیدی می‌توان به الگوی رهبری بین فردی به‌عنوان الگوی رهبری غالب و نیز حداقل دو سال سابقه همکاری با مدیر مربوطه اشاره نمود. به‌منظور تحلیل داده‌های کیفی از روش تحلیل تفسیری استفاده شد.

بحث و نتیجه گیری: بر اساس نتایج به‌دست‌آمده از تحلیل داده‌های کمی، الگوی رهبری بین فردی به‌عنوان الگوی رهبری آموزشی غالب در مدارس موردمطالعه شناسایی شد. سپس، الگوی رهبری اخلاقی،الگوی رهبری تحولی، الگوی رهبری اقتضایی، الگوی رهبری آموزشی، الگوی رهبری مدیریتی، الگوی رهبری مشارکتی، الگوی رهبری پست‌مدرن و الگوی رهبری تبادلی در مراتب بعدی قرار گرفتند. در مرحله دوم، بر اساس نتایج به‌دست‌آمده، ایفای نقش مدیریتی، حمایت دانش‌آموزان و معلمان، شخصیت مدیر، احترام به دیگران، دغدغه بهبود آموزش، مشارکت‌جویی از مهم‌ترین ویژگی‌های الگوی رهبری غالب در مدارس موردمطالعه به شمار می‌آیند. الگوی رهبری بین فردی، الگویی است که بر روابط نزدیک رهبران با معلمان، دانش‌آموزان و دیگر ذی‌نفعان تمرکز دارد. به‌زعم وست برنهام (2001) و توهی و کوگلان (1997) رهبری بین فردی بر اهمیت همکاری و روابط بین فردی تأکید می‌کند.

با استناد به یافته های این پژوهش مبنی بر اهمیت ویژه رهبری میان فردی در قلمرو رهبری آموزشی، لزوم توجه به مفهوم رهبری و شناخت الگوهای رهبری مدرسه/آموزشی بیش از همه در سرفصل آموزش‌های ضمن خدمت مدیران آموزشگاهی ضروری به نظر می‌رسد. همچنین، با نظر به اهمیت روابط بین فردی، به نظر می‌رسد مسئولان امر با متناسب کردن ساختار تشکیلات آموزش و پرورش زمینه را برای تقویت مهارت‌های ارتباطی و انسانی، تغییر نگرش و باورهای درونی نه‌تنها مدیران بلکه کلیه کادر موجود در مدارس مهیا نمایند. علاوه براین، هرچند به نظر می رسد الگوی رهبری بین فردی و الگوهای مرتبط با آن مانند الگوی رهبری اخلاقی و الگوی رهبری تحولی که با اختلاف بسیار اندک بعد از الگوی رهبری غالب قرار گرفتند، در تسهیل و کیفیت بخشی به آموزش و یادگیری در مدارس به موجب ماهیت انسانی و اجتماعی بودن حائز اهمیت بسیاری می باشند، اما احساس نگرانی و خطر از آن جهت خواهد بود که الگوی رهبری آموزشی و الگوی رهبری مشارکتی به عنوان دو عنصر اصلی و سازنده فرآیند مدیریت و رهبری آموزشی در مراتب و اولویت های پایین تر قرار گیرند. لذا، توجه به این دو الگو در برنامه ریزی برای بهبود و توسعه رهبری آموزشی مدیران مدارس ضروری به نظر می رسد.

واژگان کلیدی
الگوهای رهبری آموزشی، رهبری آموزشی، رهبری بین فردی، مدارس دوره دوم متوسطه

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