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مرور نظام‌مند شناسایی روند نگرش اعضای هیأت علمی در خصوص کاربست فاوا در آموزش در دانشگاه‌‌های ایران

چکیده

هدف: هدف پژوهش حاضر مرور نظام‌مند مطالعات و پژوهش‌های انجا‌م شده در مورد نگرش اعضای هیأت علمی در خصوص کاربست فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات در آموزش طی دوره زمانی 1381 تا 1395 است و به این پرسش اصلی پاسخ می‌دهد که پژوهش‌های انجام‌شده چه ویژگی‌هایی داشته‌اند؟ روند نگرشی اساتید در طی این مدت چگونه بوده؟ و چه عواملی بر نگرش آنان تأثیر گذاشته است؟ هم‌چنین پژوهش حاضر درصدد بود تا تصویر جامعی از سیمای این پژوهش‌ها ارائه دهد.

مواد و روش‌ها: این پژوهش توصیفی تحلیلی و از نوع بنیادی است که در آن به تحلیل کمی و کیفی پژوهش‌های گذشته از نظر موضوعاتی هم‌چون سهم موضوعی مقالات، روش‌های تحقیق، گویه‌های نگرشی و روند نگرش پرداخته شده است. در این تحقیق با توجه به هدف پژوهش، از روش مرور نظام‌مند استفاده شده است. جامعه آماري این پژوهش شامل مقاله‌هاي چاپ شده در نشریه‌ها و نمایه شده در پایگاه‌هاي Magiran،Normagas ،Sid ، Google می‌باشد. در این راستا با بهره‌گیری از اطلاعات موجود در سیستم اینترنتی و پایگاه‌های اطلاع‌رسانی داخلی از جمله Magiran،Normagas ،Sid ، Google و پرتال جامع علوم انسانی کلید واژه‌های نگرش، باور، عقاید، فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات، تکنولوژی آموزشی، رایانه، کامپیوتر، اینترنت، فناوری سیار، آموزش الکترونیکی، اساتید و اعضای هیأت علمی مورد جستجو قرار گرفتند. سپس، مقالات به دست آمده به دو دسته مرتبط و غیرمرتبط تقسیم‌بندی شدند. از 145مقاله به دست آمده، پس از حذف مقالات نامرتبط، 39 مقاله وارد مطالعه شدند. در نهایت از بین آن‌ها 30 مقاله دارای ملاک‌های ورود به مطالعه بوده و مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. این مقاله با استفاده از روش مرور نظام‌مند 30 پژوهش انجام شده در ایران را بررسی توصیفی و هم‌چنین ارزیابی کرده است. برای بررسی پایایی در روش مرور نظام‌مند مقالات توسط دو فرد خبره بررسی و مورد تأیید قرار گرفت.

بحث و نتیجه‌گیری: یافته‌ها بیانگر آن است که مقوله نگرش در کاربرد فناوری سهم قابل توجهی را به خود اختصاص داده است.  غالب‌ترین روش‌ها از منظر هدف، جمع‌آوری اطلاعات و شیوه اجرا در خصوص نقش نگرش در کاربست فناوری به ترتیب سه روش کمی، پرسشنامه، توصیفی بوده است. تئوری رفتار برنامه‌ریزی شده آیزن و فیشبن تئوری مشاهده شده از نظریه‌ها و تئوری‌های مورد استفاده در مقالات بوده است. عوامل پيش‌برنده و مشوق نیز زمینه‌ساز ایجاد نگرش مساعد به فناوری می‌باشد. هم‌چنین یافته‌های نشان داد که بین نگرش و کاربرد فناوری، رابطه معناداری وجود دارد. علاوه‌بر این نگرش اساتید نسبت به کاربرد فناوری در سال‌های اخیر کمی به سمت منفی تمایل پیدا کرده است. یافته‌های پژوهش حاضر بیانگر این است که متغیرهای مدرک تحصیلی، رتبه علمی و دانشکده از عوامل تأثیرگذار بر نگرش اعضای هیأت علمی نسبت به فناوری می‌باشد. نگرش اعضای هیأت علمی نقش مهم و تأثیر انکارناپذیری در بهبود میزان کاربرد فناوری ایفا می‌کنند اما طبق نتایج این پژوهش، نگرش اساتید نسبت به فناوری روبه منفی شدن می‌باشد. از این‌رو آگاهی هر چه بهتر از روند نگرشی منجر به شناخت عوامل و دلایل منفی شدن نگرش اعضای هیأت علمی و افزایش و بهبود کاربرد فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات توسط آن‌ها خواهد داشت

واژگان کلیدی
اعضای هیأت علمی، آموزش، فاوا، مرور نظام‌مند، نگرش.

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