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چالش‌های نوظهور آموزش عالی ایران و ارائه الگوی مفهومی؛ یک مطالعه گراندد تئوری

چکیده

هدف: با پيشرفت فناوري و جریان سریع تحولات جهانی، دانشگاه‌ها در تعامل بيشتري با محيط پيرامون خود قرار گرفته‌اند، و این مسأله چالش‌های متعددی را برای آموزش عالی در حوزه‌های مختلفی ایجاد کرده است. بنابراین شناسایی آن‌ها و اتخاذ راهبردهای منطقی و واقع بینانه در مقابل آن باعث اثربخشی هرچه بیشتر نظام آموزش عالی خواهد شد؛ بدین‌منظور پژوهش حاضر قصد دارد چالش‌های نوظهور در توسعه آموزش عالی را شناسایی نموده و در این راستا الگویی مفهومی ارائه نماید.

مواد و روش‌ها: پژوهش حاضر از نوع پژوهش‌هاي کیفی بود که در آن با استفاده از رویکرد نظریه داده بنیاد، چالش‌های نوظهور در آموزش عالی شناسایی شد. گردآوری اطلاعات با ابزار مصاحبه عمیق انجام شد که اشباع نظری یافته‌ها، در شانزدهمین مصاحبه حاصل گردید. تحلیل داده‌ها نیز از روش گراندد تئوری، و با استفاده از کدگذاری باز، محوری و گزینشی صورت رفت. ميدان تحقيق در این پژوهش، متخصصان و خبرگان و مدیران آموزش عالی در دانشگاه‌های مختلف کشور بودند. مشارکت‌کنندگان به صورت روش نمونه‌گیری هدفمند (از نوع گلوله برفی) انتخاب شدند. به‌منظور رعایت ویژگی‌های کیفی پژوهش از سه معیار قابل قبول بودن، تأییدپذیري و قابلیت اطمینان استفاده شد؛ و نتایج حاصل از این مطالعه به اساتید شرکت‌کننده در پژوهش ارائه، و نتایج مطالعه تأیید شد.

بحث و نتیجه‌گیری: یافته‌های پژوهش نشان داد چهار دسته چالش جدی و نوظهور در آموزش عالی وجود دارد که شامل: چالش‌های بین‌المللی؛ چالش‌های میان رشته‌ای، چالش‌های ارتباط با صنعت؛ چالش در حوزه‌های نوین علم، می‌باشد. که اگر به چشم فرصت به هر یک از این چالش‌ها نگاه شود یقیناً بستر مناسبی برای توسعه آموزش عالی فراهم خواهد گردید در پایان پژوهش نیز، راهبردهایی تدوین و مدل نهایی براساس یافته‌های پژوهش ارائه شده است.

واژگان کلیدی
چالش‌های توسعه آموزش عالی، چالش‌های بین‌المللی، علوم میان‌رشته‌ای، ارتباط با صنعت، علوم نوین.

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