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شناسایی عوامل موثر بر کیفیت بخشی آموزش از دیدگاه متخصصان آموزش عالی و دانشجویان دکتری
احمد کیخا, حسین عبداللهی, علی خورسندی طاسکوه

چکیده

هدف: در دهه های اخیر نظام آموزش عالی ایران با چالش های فراوانی از جمله کمی گرایی، افزایش فشارهای مالی، تمرکزگرایی و تعدد مراکز تصمیم ساز و تصمیم گیر، سیطره سیاست زدگی بر نظام آموزش عالی، افزایش بی اخلاقی های پژوهشی، نبود ارتباطات بین المللی، ناهمزمانی برنامه های درسی با نیازهای جامعه، ضعف زیرساختارهای تکنولوژیکی و غیره مواجه شده است که سطح کیفی آن را دچار تنزل کرده است. بنابراین هم اکنون بیش از زمان دیگری نیازمند باز اندیشی در ساختار و کارکردهای آموزش عالی می باشد. از این رو، هدف از پژوهش پیش رو، شناسایی عوامل مؤثر بر کیفیت بخشی آموزش از دیدگاه متخصصان آموزش عالی و دانشجویان دکتری در دانشگاه علامه­طباطبائی می باشد که این عوامل در سطوح مختلف اثربخشی با واکاوی دو دیدگاه شناسایی و تحلیل شدند

مواد و روش ها: با توجه به پیچیدگی، ذهنی و نسبی بودن مفهوم کیفیت در آموزش و وابسته بودن آن به بستر و زمینه هر ساختاری در این مطالعه از روش پژوهش کیفی اکتشافی استفاده شده است. چراکه برون داد پژوهش های کیفی یافته های دقیق تری را برای درک و تفسیر عمیق تر افکار و اذهان آزمودنی ها فراهم می سازد. بدین منظور با استفاده از مصاحبه نیمه ساختار یافته، با 7 متخصص آموزش عالی و 19 دانشجوی دکتری که با روش نمونه گیری هدفمند و گلوله برفی انتخاب شده بودند مصاحبه با شش پرسش صورت گرفت. سپس اطلاعات گردآوری شده با بهره گیری از روش تحلیل محتوا، تجزیه و تحلیل شدند. در مرحله کدگذاری باز پس از خوانش تمامی مصاحبه ها مفاهیم مربوط به هر مصاحبه احصاء شد. در مرحله بعد مفاهیم احصاء شده بر اساس وجوه افتراق و اشتراک در قالب مقوله های فرعی ثانویه دسته بندی شدند. در بخش سوم فرایند کدگذاری، مقوله های ثانویه فرعی نیز بر پایه تشابهات و تفاوت ها در یکدیگر ادغام و مقوله های ثانویه اولیه را تشکیل دادند این فرایند به طور جداگانه در پاسخ به هر پرسش مصاحبه انجام شد.

بحث و نتيجه گيری:یافته‌ها نشان می دهد که عوامل موثر بر کیفیت آموزش در سطح کلاس درس به چهار دسته؛ استاد (آکادمیکی و شخصیتی)، دانشجو (تحصیلی و نگرشی_شخصیتی)، محتوای درسی (ساختاری و اجرایی)، امکانات و زیرساخت ها (زیرساخت سخت و تکنولوژیکی_علمی) تقسیم می شوند. موانع آموزش با کیفیت در آموزش عالی نیز به دو دسته درون دانشگاهی (استاد، دانشجو، محتوای درسی و امکانات و زیرساخت ها) و فرا دانشگاهی (در سطح خرد و سطح کلان) تفکیک شدند که متناظر با موانع، راهکارهای رفع آن ها نیز برای کیفیت بخشی به آموزش عالی نظیر: بازنگری سیستم ارتقاء اعضای هیئت علمی، گسترش ارتباط با مجامع بین المللی، باز ساماندهی ارتباط دانشگاه با صنعت، اصلاح فرایند جذب اعضای هیئت علمی و غیره تشریح شد. یافته های نشان دهنده نقش دانشجو در افزایش کیفیت آموزش نیز به دو دسته عوامل درونی (علمی-تحصیلی و نگرشی) و عوامل بیرونی (مدیریتی-اجرایی، سیاستی) طبقه سازی شدند. در واکاوی نقش برنامه درسی در افزایش کیفیت آموزش عالی نیز یافته ها به دو دسته محتوایی (ساختاری و اجرایی) و فرامحتوایی (مدیریتی و سیاستی) طبقه بندی شدند. براساس یافته های این پژوهش اصلاح سیستم ارزشیابی استاد توسط دانشجو و توجه به نتایج آن برای بهکرد عملکرد اعضای هیئت علمیپیشنهاد میشود

واژگان کلیدی
آموزش عالی- دانشگاه-کیفیت بخشی

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